Un enfoque de la doctrina de la trinidad en la teología adventista del séptimo día y en la teología católica romana
Palabras clave:Carácter — Temor de Dios — Ley de Dios — Juicio Final — Escatología
ResumenEl estudio de la doctrina de Dios ha estado en el mismo centro de la teología cristiana. Esta es una de las razones por las cuales la Trinidad históricamente ha sido sujeto de algunas de las controversias teológicas más intensas y prolongadas del cristianismo, incluso en la Iglesia Adventista del Séptimo Día. Por esta razón siempre ha sido la doctrina más difícilde entender en las discusiones teológicas. El debate actual en los círculos adventistas que involucra la postura adventista sobre la Trinidad ha adquirido cada vez más relevancia y seha cuestionado la postura adventista actual sobre la Trinidad porque hay dificultad para comprender el concepto de Dios como ser triuno. Algunos críticos argumentan que aladoptar la doctrina de la Trinidad la Iglesia Adventista del Séptimo Día se ha alejado de la postura de los pioneros adventistas del séptimo día sobre la comprensión de la naturalezade Dios y se está acercando a la postura católica romana. Por consiguiente, la meta principal de este artículo es presentar y analizar la postura adventista del séptimo día sobrela Trinidad a la luz de la postura teológica católica romana sobre su dogma trinitario de manera sistemática y detallada para presentar el verdadero enfoque teológico adventistade Dios.
Franz Delitzsch, Ecclesiastes (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982), 183.
For a complete discussion of the different theories on this passage, Roland Murphy, Ecclesiastes, Word Biblical Commentary, Vol. 23a. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1992), 126-130; and Michael Fox, A time to tear down and a time to build up: a rereading of Ecclesiastes (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), 363-77.
C. S. Seow acknowledges that the themes of Ecclesiastes 12,13, 14 are not in contradiction with the rest of the book, Ecclesiastes (New York: Doubleday, 1997), 395; In a similar line, Thomas Kruger, Qoheleth (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004), 213.
David Dorsey, The Literary Structure of the Old Testament. A Commentary on Genesis – Malachi (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1999), 193. For a more detailed structure by the same author, see p. 198. Dorsey notes that these seven units alternate with brief poetic units and extensive autobiographical discussions in a pattern a-b-a-b-a-b-a. Compare with the recent discussion of John F. Hobbins, “The poetry of Qohelet”, in The Words of the Wise are like Goads. Engaging Qoheleth in the 21st Century, ed. by Mark J Boda, Tremper Longman and Cristian G Raţă (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013), 163-192 and the proposal of Alviero Nicacci, “Qohelet. Analisi sintattica, traduzione, composizione”, Liber Annuus 54 (2004): 53-94, who also support the unity of book including Ecclesiastes 12,13-14.
“The highlighted position of the central unit exhorting the audience to ‘fear of God’ (5,1-7 [4,17-5,6]), together with the equally highlighted position of the final conclusion, which likewise urges listeners to ‘fear of God’ (12,9-14), suggests the central importance of this theme to the author”. Dorsey, The Literary Structure of the Old Testament, 197.
A. G Shead, “Reading Ecclesiastes Epilogically”, Tyndalle Bulletin 48 (1997): 72-75. Michael Shepherd designates Ecclesiastes 12:9-14 as a “microcosm of the book’s verbal system”. The Verbal System of Biblical Aramaic: a Distributional Approach, Studies in Biblical Literature vol. 116 (New York: Peter Lang, 2008), 96.
Jacques Doukhan, All is Vanity. Ecclesiastes (Idaho: Pacific Press, 2006), 119.
Vittoria D’Alario, Il libro del Qohelet. Struttura letteraria e retorica (Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 1992), 172. The text of Ecclesiastes 3,17 already anticipated this crucial topic: “I said in mine heart, God shall judge the righteous and the wicked ( ): for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.”
Christoph Berner points out, “throughout the Hebrew Bible, there is a wide variety of writings and passages which deal with evil and death in light of present and future existence. Yet, there is hardly a place where these issues are treated more distinctly and more radically as in the Book of Qohelet”, “Evil and Death in the Book of Qohelet”, in Evil and Death. Conceptions of the Human in Biblical, Early Jewish, Greco-Roman and Egyptian Literature, Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Studies, vol. 18 (Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2015), 57; For Lategan in Ecclesiastes, “life-death relation is characterized by a tension”. Werner Andre Lategan, “The Theological Dialectic of Creation and Death in Hebrew Bible Wisdom Traditions” (PhD Dissertation, University of Groningen, 2009), 181.
Richard Alan Fuhr JR, An analysis of the inter-dependency of the prominent motifs within the Book of Qohelet (New York: Peter Lang, 2013), 179.
See the excellent and complete study of C. L. Seow, “Qohelet’s Eschatological Poem”, Journal of Biblical Literature 118, n.o 2 (1999): 209-234; and also Thomas Kruger, “Dekonstruktion und rekonstruktion prophetischer eschatologie im Qohelet-Buch”, in “Jedes Ding Hat Seine Zeit …”: Studien Zur Israelitischen und Altorientalischen Weisheit, ed. A. A. Diesel, G. R. Lehmann, E. Otto and A. Wagner (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1996), 107-129.
Seow says about it: “The sun is mentioned thirty-five times, but now, in its final appearance, the sun is darkened. In the prologue of the book (1:2-11), one finds the sun shining, as humanity toils and generations come and go. The sun rises and sets as part of a seemingly endless and wearisome routine… The poet, however, now goes further to include even the luminaries of the night- the moon and the stars- in the cosmic darkening”, Seow, “Qohelet’s Eschatological Poem”, 214. The cursive in mine.
Ibid., 217. In addition the author points out: “Life’s routines are interrupted not only at home, but also in the public places. The double-doors ( דְלָתַיִם ) of the street-bazaar are closed (v. 4a). The scene is the street-baazar ( שׁוּק ), the center of economic and social activities in the city. The closing of the doors leading into the שׁוּק , therefore, means the cessation of lively commerce and social intercourse.”
For example, James Crenshaw, Ecclesiastes. A commentary (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987), 45. For a complete discussion of the different proposals on the authorship of the epilogue, Michael Fox, A time to tear down and a time to build up, 363-377.
Samuel Balentine, “Wisdom”, in The Cambridge Companion to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, ed. Stephen B. Chapman and Marvin A. Sweeney (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 287.
Mark J. Boda, “Speaking into the Silence: the epilogue of Ecclesiastes”, in The words of the wise are like goads. Engaging Qoheleth in the 21st century, ed. Mark J Boda, Tremper Longman III and Cristian G. Raţă (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013), 264. The author indicates that “this connection among knowledge, teaching, and God echoes the regular identification of God as the source of knowledge (compare with 2,6; 3,20)”.
Naoto Kamano, Cosmology and character. Qohelet’s pedagogy from a rethorical-critical perspective (Berlin – New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2002), 1-26.
Yairah Amit, “The multi-purpose ‘leading word’ and the problems of its usage”, Prooftexts 9 (1989): 95-114.
Is interesting that in 3 occasions דָּבָר is utilized in a plural form (12,10-11), but in the verse 13 it change to singular form. This change suggests in our interpretation an intentional contrast between human and divine wisdom.
Samuel Balentine, “Wisdom”, in The Cambridge Companion to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, 287.
See, for example, Paul Delnero, “Scholarship and inquiry in early Mesopotamia”, Journal of ancient near eastern history (2016): 1-35.
Martin A. Shields writes the following: “The words of the sages, against which the epilogist has previously warned the reader, are not considered essential for human beings, whereas fearing God and keeping his commands (words) are essential. In order to emphasize this point further, the epilogist offers one final reason that fearing God and keeping his commands are essential, as opposed to heeding the advice of the sages, in the final verse of the book”, The end of the wisdom. a reappraisal of the historical and canonical function of Ecclesiastes (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006), 100.
Thomas Kruger, Qoheleth, 214.
Ryan P. O’Dowd, “Epistemology in Ecclesiastes: remembering what it means to be human”, in The Words of the Wise are like Goads. Engaging Qoheleth in the 21st Century, ed. Mark J Boda, Tremper Longman III and Cristian G. Raţă (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013), 202. Note the philosophical implications for Craig Bartholomew, “Ecclesiastes 12,13 contains the evocative expression “all the man”, that is, the whole of what constitutes being human. Intriguingly, the expression כָּל־הָאָדָם (“all the man”) is used in a similar way in 7,2 and 5,17[ET 18]. In 5,17, it is used in the context of one of the carpe diem passages whereas, in 7:2, it is used in relation to its being better to go to the house of mourning than the house of feasting because this is כָּל־הָאָדָם (“all the man”). Scholars translate this expression in different ways, but attention to its repetition in these three verses is revealing. Qohelet’s question about the value of work leads him inevitably to the question of what it means to be human. Questions about how we know, who we are, and what the nature of our world is—epistemology,
anthropology, and ontology—are always linked, just as they are in Ecclesiastes”; “The theology of Ecclesiastes”, in The Words of the Wise are like Goads, 371.
The use of generic noun אָדָם + the definite article in 12,13 confirms this interpretation, where the biblical author has in mind an audience that is beyond the borders of Israel. According to Baranowski, “the article is a powerful tool in advancing discourse and thought. Indeed, it serves as a means of organizing information and it contributes to building a specific perspective in which the author perceives reality”, Krzysztof J. Baranowski, “The article in the Book of Qoheleth”, in Ἐν πάσῃ γραμματικῇ καὶ σοφίᾳ saggi di linguistica ebraica in onore di Alviero
Niccacci, ed. Gregor Geiger (Milano/Jerusalem: Edizioni Terra Santa/Franciscan Printing Press, 2011), 48.
An exemplary case is the commentary of Ecl 5,1-7 [TM 4,17-5,6] of Dt 23,22-24, and that has as its background Nm 15,22-31 (cf. Lv 4,2; 22, 27-30). “Qohelet is well acquainted with the cultus of temple (5,1-7), as does the reference to ‘clean’, and ‘unclean’ in 9,2. This evidence of awareness of pentateuchal cultic legislation needs to be combined with the vocabulary in Ecclesiastes that also appears to relate to the domain of torah, namely ‘judgment’ (3,17; 11,19), ‘sinner’ (2,26; 5,5; ; 8,12), ‘wicked’ and ‘righteous’ (3,17), ‘wickedness [is folly]’ (7,25), ‘one who pleases God’ versus ‘the sinner’ (7,26), and so on. Many try to minimize the religious and ethical nuance of this vocabulary in Ecclesiastes”, Craig G. Bartholomew, Ecclesiastes (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2009), 88.
Commonly translated as “for this is man’s all (the duty)”, or “for all men”, the truth is that both translations are valid grammatical options, although the first one reflect better the moral sense of the sentence. In addition, the vocabulary of verses 13 and 14 framed within the context of the final judgment seems to support this option.
Andrew G. Shead, “Reading Ecclesiastes epilogically”, 70.
Peter Enns, “kol ha-‘adam and the evaluation of Qohelet’s wisdom in Qoh 12:13, or the ‘A is so, and what’s more, B’ theology of Ecclesiastes”, in The Idea of Biblical Interpretation, ed. H. Najman and J. Newman (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 127.
Richard Alan Fuhr Jr., An analysis of the inter-dependency…, 171.
See the excellent reflection of Elaine A. Goodfrined, “Ethical theory and practice in the Hebrew Bible”, in The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Ethics and Morality, ed. Elliot N. Dorff and Jonathan K. Crane (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 35-50.
Edward J Woods, Deuteronomy. An Introduction and Commentary (Nottingham: IVP, 2011), 172, 173. The emphasis is mine. For other Also see, Bill Arnold, “The Love-Fear Antinomy in Deuteronomy 5-11”, Vetus Testamentum 61 (2011): 551-569.
For this relations, see Thomas Krüger, “Israel’s law and wisdom according to Deut 4:5–8”, in Wisdom and Torah: the Reception of ‘Torah’ in the Wisdom Literature of the Second Temple Period, ed. by Bernd Schipper and D. Andrew Teeter (Leiden: BRILL, 2013), 35-54, although its interesting lights are seriously affected by the late dating of the texts. Blenkinsopp remarks, “the law is therefore the expression of divine wisdom made available to Israel and, as such, can compete on more that equal terms with the vaunted wisdom of the nations”, Joseph Blenkinsopp, Wisdom and Law in the Old Testament the Ordering of Life in Israel and Early Judaism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 131.
Further Deut 8,1 concludes that the commandments of God are life for the children of Israel: “All the commandments which I command thee this day shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers” (Dt. 8,1).
Edward L. Greenstein and Michael P. O’Connor, “Paralelism”, in Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, ed. Roland Greene (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012), 997-999.
For an acute study on these important relationships, John T. Willias, “Ethics in a cultic setting”, in Essays in Old Testament Ethics, ed. James L. Crenshaw and John T. Willis (New York: Ktav, 1974), 147-63; and Philip Sumpter, “The Coherence of Psalms 15–24”, Biblica 94 (2013): 186-219.
Gerhard von Rad, ‘“Righteousness’ and ‘life’ in the cultic language of the Psalms”, in The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (London: SCM Press, 1966), 250.
David N. Freedman, Psalm 119. The Exaltation of Torah (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1999), and Kent A. Reynolds, Torah As Teacher: The Exemplary Torah Student in Psalm 119, volume 137 of Vetus Testamentum Supplements Series (Leiden: BRILL, 2010).
An interesting reading from this perspective is the beautiful book of Gordon Wenham, Psalms as Torah. Reading Biblical Song Ethically (Gran Rapid, MI: Baker Academic, 2012), and particularly the chapters “The concept of the Law in the Psalms” and “Law in the Psalter.”
C. L. Seow, “An exquisitely poetic introduction to the psalter”, Journal of Biblical Literature 132.2 (2013): 275-293.
Seow, “An Exquisitely Poetic Introduction to the Psalter”, note also the close literary relationship between Psalms 1 and 2, which would confirm this eschatological feature of the first psalm.
In the sanctuary of ancient Israel was the sacred law of God in the most holy place. A rich and extensive theology is still discovered in these passages. For this relations see my article, “A Theological Study of the Defilement and Cleansing of the Hebrew Sanctuary”, in The Heavenly Sanctuary and its Contemporary Challenges, ed. Richard M. Davidson, David Asmat, Joel Iparraguirre (Ñaña, Lima: Andrews University and Universidad Peruana Union), forthcoming 2018 (in English and Spanish).
Wenham, Psalms as Torah, 79; See also Benjamin D. Sommer, “Psalm 1 and the canonical shaping of jewish scripture”, in Jewish Biblical Theology. Perspectives and Case Studies, ed. by Isaac Kalimi (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2012), 199-221.
Gerhard F. Hasel, “Divine Judgment”, in Handbook of Seventh-day Adventist theology, ed. Raoul Dederen (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2000), 815-856. It is important to note that the theological relationship between the concepts of justice, wisdom, and purity with respect to the character of the eschatological remnant of God can be observed in passages such as Daniel 12: 3, 9 and in the New Testament in the letter to the Romans and Revelation 12:17; 14:12; 19: 8 [white robes as a symbol of justice]. The concept of biblical justice needs to be addressed in relation to the Ten Commandments. As we try to show in our study, God’s law is presented as the concrete expression of God’s justice. Consult also the recent study of Roy Gane, Old Testament Law for Christians. Original Context and Enduring Application (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2017).
Tremper Longman III, “Fear of God”, in Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry, & Writings, ed. by Tremper Longman III and Peter Enns (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2008), 201, especially the first one.
Jacques Doukhan, Proverbs. The Fear of God is the Beginning of Wisdom (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2014), 11-21.
Tremper Longman III, “Fear of God”, 202.
Shamir Yona, “Exegetical and stylistic analysis of a number of aphorisms in the Book of Proverbs: mitigation of monotony in repetitions in parallel texts”, in Seeking Out the Wisdom of the Ancients: Essays Offered to Honor Michael V. Fox on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, ed. Ronald L. Troxel, Kelvin G. Friebel, and Dennis R. Magary (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005), 155-165; and more recently, Knut M. Heim, “Poetic imagination in Proverbs. Variant repetitions and the nature of poetry”, Supplements, Bulletin for Biblical Research 4 (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2013).
Shown extensively in the recent study of Anne W. Stewart, Poetic Ethics in Proverbs: Wisdom Literature and the Shaping of the Moral Self (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
See the valuable comments of Adele Berlin, Poetic and Interpretation of Biblical Poetry (Winona Lake, IN: 1994 ), 41-42.
Samuel Balentine, “Inside the ‘sanctuary of silence.’ the moral-ethical demands of suffering”, in Character Ethics and the Old Testament: Moral Dimensions of Scripture, ed. M. D. Carroll R. y J. E. Lapsley (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2007), 66; See also, “Character formed in the crucible: Job’s relationship with God and Joban character ethics”, Journal of Theological Interpretation 3, n.° 1 (2009): 1-16. The Job’s character contains eschatological implications as demonstrated by Lael Caesar, “Job as paradigm for the eschaton”, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 11/1-2 (2000): 148–162. The book of Job needs to be studied much more from this last perspective.
In his important work, James L. Crenshaw, Education in Ancient Israel. Across the Deadening Silence, Anchor Bible Reference Library, ed. David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1998), 1, recognize that the main goal of education in ancient Israel was the formation of character.
Tremper Longman III, The Book of Ecclesiastes, New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Winona Lake, IN: Eerdmans, 1998), 282; In addition he adds, “he had an eschatological judgment in mind”, 283, and in other place, “indeed, here we have the fear of God used in conjunction with the further injunction to obedience, specifically, obedience to the law and living in the light of the future judgment of God”, “The ‘Fear of God’ in the Book of Ecclesiastes”, Bulletin for Biblical Research 25, n.° 1 (2015): 20.
Gerald H. Wilson calls these two realities as “the origin and culmination of true wisdom”, “‘The words of the wise’. The intent and significance of Qohelet 12:9–14”, Journal of Biblical Literature 103, n.° 2 (1984): 181.
Tremper Longman III, The Fear of the Lord is Wisdom, 15. It points out this with regard to the fear of the Lord.
“God’s law reaches the feelings and motives, as well as the outward acts. It reveals the secrets of the heart, flashing light upon things before buried in darkness. God knows every thought, every purpose, every plan, every motive. The books of heaven record the sins that would have been committed had there been opportunity. God will bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing. By His law He measures every work into judgment, with every secret thing. By His law He measures the character of every man”, (“Ellen G. White Comments”, in The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, ed. Francis D. Nichol [Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald
Publishing Association, 1978], 5:1085).
Ellen White, “Our Work”, Southern Watchman 12 (April 16, 1903): 113. In other place she points out: “Many are deceiving themselves by thinking that the character will be transformed at the coming of Christ, but there will be not conversion of heart at His appearing. Our defects of character must here be repented of, and through the grace of Christ we must overcome them while probation shall last. This is the place for fitting up for the family above”, The Adventist Home (Nashville, TN.: Southern Publishing Association, 1952), 319.
Peter Enns, “kol ha-‘adam and the evaluation of Qohelet’s Wisdom in Qoh 12:13”, 128. These last verses are the answer, in our reading, to what Michael Fox considers the central concern 18of Ecclesiastes’s book: the meaning of life; Michael V. Fox, “The innerstructure of Qohelet’s thought”, in Qohelet in the Context of Wisdom, ed. A. Schoors (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1998), 225.
“The text of Revelation 14 indicates that the proclamation of judgment anticipates the coming of the Son of Man and the salvation of the world (Revelation 14,14), suggesting the horizon of this passage of Ecclesiastes. Beyond the last words of Ecclesiastes on judgment, a new world is then expected-a new world of justice and peace, free from evil. For the first time wisdom will not fail, because God will finally have sorted out the good and the evil. The whole book of Ecclesiastes was aiming at this cleansing operation, the ultimate work of divine wisdom”, Doukhan, All is Vanity. Ecclesiastes, 127.