La compatibilidad de la ascensión de Cristo en la Epístola a los Hebreos y la teología del juicio preadvenimiento (Parte 1)


  • Lalnuntluanga Ralte Mizo Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Mizoram, Aizawl, India


Palabras clave:

Teología adventista – Juicio previo al advenimiento – Hebreos – Santuario – Nuevo Testamento


La doctrina adventista del juicio investigador preadvenimiento se ha enfrentado al escepticismodesde finales del siglo xix, en gran parte debido a los conflictos percibidos con laEpístola a los Hebreos. Este estudio busca establecer el fundamento bíblico de la doctrina,que se encuentra principalmente en el Libro de Daniel, mientras examina su compatibilidadcon el Nuevo Testamento. Mediante el análisis de los textos de Daniel 7, 8, 9 y lasecuencia explícita de Apocalipsis 14, esta investigación aporta pruebas convincentes del concepto de juicio previo al advenimiento en la Biblia. Sin embargo, surgen dudas sobre la ubicación del ministerio de Jesús en el cielo tras la ascensión, en particular en el contexto de “sentado a la diestra de Dios”. A pesar de los posibles conflictos que sugiere esta frase, aspectos como el ministerio intercesor y la cristología del Sumo Sacerdote parecen armonizar con la doctrina. Aunque este artículo ofrece un apoyo sustancial, un examen más detallado de su compatibilidad aguarda la segunda parte de este estudio.


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The Bible provides stories of ascension to heaven. Three people are recorded to have ascended

to heaven: Enoch (Gen 5,24; Heb 11,5); Elijah (2 Kgs 2,1-12); Jesus (Luke 24,51; Acts 1,9).

Paul claimed that he ascended to heaven, but he is uncertain that he ascended to heaven physically or not (2 Cor 12,2-4). John ascended to heaven in the vision (Rev 4,1). There are accounts

in which the throne in heaven is granted to humanity: Moses, Aaron, and the elders of Israel

(Exod 24,9-11); Micaiah (1 Kgs 22,19-23; 2 Chr 18,18-21); Isaiah (Isa 6,1-13); and Ezekiel

(Ezek 1,10). See James D. Tabor, “Ascent to Heaven”, Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. by David

Noel Freedman, vol. 3 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992), 91-94.

Brian K. Donne, “The significance of the ascension of Jesus Christ in the New Testament”,

Scottish Journal of Theology 30 (1977): 567.

J. G. Davies, He ascended into heaven: A study in the history of doctrine (Cambridge, UK: James

Clarke & Co., 2004), 45.

A. B Swete, The ascended Christ (London: 1910), 1, quoted in Norman R. Gulley, “Ascension of

Christ”, in ABD, ed. by David Noel Freedman, vol. 1 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992), 473.

Gulley, “Ascension of Christ”, 1:473.

Felix H. Cortez, “The anchor of the soul that enters within the veil: The ascension of the ‘Son’

in the Letter to the Hebrews” (PhD dissertation, Andrews University, 2008).

Daniel 8,14 contains 2300 year-day prophecy, which, according to the calculation ends at

that proceeds the pre-advent judgment. See William Shea, “Supplementary evidence in

support of 457 B.C. as a starting date for 2300 day-years of Daniel 8:14”, Journal of the Adventist

Theological Society 12, no. 1 (Spring, 2001): 89–96. See also Roy E. Gane, “Christ’s heavenly

sanctuary ministry”, Perspective Digest 15, no. 3 (2010). Daniel 8,14 says: “And he said unto

me, ‘For two thousand three hundred days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed’” (The version

of the Bible is NKJV). Ezekiel 4,6 explained the interpretation of the prophetic time known as

the year-day principle, in which, one day is equal to one year. Thus, the prophecy of Dan 8,14

became 2300 years. According to Daniel 9,25-27, the prophecy began with King Artexerxes

giving the command to rebuild Jerusalem. Hence, the 2300 year-day prophetic timeframe came

to an end at 1844 when counted from the day the order to rebuild Jerusalem was given.

Τὰ ἅγια is the phrase used for sanctuary, holy place, holy of holies, most holy place, etc., based

on the version of the Bible. See Barbara Friberg, Timothy Friberg, and Kurt Aland, in Analytical

Greek New Testament: Greek Text Analysis (Cedar Hill, TX: Silver Mountain Software, 2001),

s. v. “Hebrews 9,12.”

American King James Version, Emphasized Bible, King James 2000 version, New Heart English

Bible: Aramaic Names New Testament Edition and World English Bible translated as “the holy

place”; Darby Bible, Modern Literal Version, Voice in the Wilderness 2008 Bible, translated

as “the holy of holies”; English Majority Text version 2011 Edition, the Logos Bible, Modern

King James Version, and Smith’s Literal Translation translated as the “Holies”; New English

Translation, Unlocked Literal Bible, New International Version and New King James Version

translated as “the Most holy place”; Open English Bible translated as “Sanctuary”; and Young

Literal version translated as “the holy places”.

Daniel 7,9-13; 8,14; 9,25-27.

According to the interpretation of Daniel 8,14, Jesus entered the Most Holy place only by

and not in His ascension. See Shea, “Supplementary evidence”, JATS 12, no 1, (Spring,

: 89-96.

Mostly, the studies on Christ ascension and His ministry in the heavenly sanctuary are narrowed

down to the study of Daniel and the Epistle to the Hebrews separately; e.g., Felix Cortez wrote a

dissertation which is a major work on the Epistle to the Hebrews concerning Christ Ascension.

See Cortez, “The anchor of the soul that enters within the veil”: The ascension of the ‘Son’ in

the Letter to the Hebrews”; Gerhard F. Hasel, “The ‘Little Horn’, the saints, and the sanctuary in

Daniel 8’”, in The sanctuary and the atonement: Biblical, historical and theological studies, ed. by

Arnold V. Wallenkampf and W. Richard Lesher (Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1981),

, is the brief studies of Daniel 8; William Shea, “The relationship between the prophecies of

Daniel 8 and 9”, in Sanctuary and the atonement: Biblical, historical and theological studies, ed. by

Arnold V. Wallenkampf and W. Richard Lesher (Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1981),

, is another material for the Book of Daniel. However, the intertextuality of Daniel and the

Epistle to the Hebrews is rarely found

Hebrews 3,1; 4,14; 7,25; 8,2; 9,24; 9,12; 10,12.

The study mainly highlight on Hebrews 6,19 which expounded on “Christ within the veil” and

Hebrews 9,12, which described that Christ entered to τὰ ἅγια (see earlier footnote) once and for

all. Christ’s ascension theology was mentioned in the introduction part, in which, the disciples

saw Jesus ascended to heaven (Acts 1,9) and the other story was found in Luke 24,51, when

Jesus blessed them, and He was taken to heaven. However, the texts merely describe the nature

of His ascension and the function of His ministry and not the location of the sanctuary. In these

lights, one of the purposes of the study is to specify on whether Jesus went into the Holy place

or the Most Holy place in His ascension.

One can study a vast open subject of investigative judgment. However, the thesis will primarily

focus on the investigative judgment, the sanctuary service, its type, and antitype, in order to be

able to assess the compatibility of Christ ascension theology in the Epistle to the Hebrews with

the other theology in the other part of the Bible and particular in the Book of Daniel

For a thorough study on the subject of heavenly sanctuary in the Old Testament, see Elias

Brasil de Souza, “The heavenly sanctuary /temple motif in the Hebrew Bible : Function and

relationship to the earthly counterparts” (dissertation, Michigan, Andrews University, 2005).

For a few example of explicit passages of the heavenly sanctuary in the Old Testament, see

Gen 11,1-9; 28,10-22; Exod 15,1-18; 24,9-11; 25,9.40; 32,1-34,34; Deut 26,15; 2 Sam 22,1-51;

Kgs 18,12-66; 22,19-23; Isa 6,1-8; 14,12-15; Ezek 1,1-28; 10,1-22; 28,11-19; Micah 1,2-3;

Zech 3,1-10; 1 Chro 16,27; Jonah 2,7; Habakkuk 2,20; Ps 11,4; 18,6; 60,6; 63,2; 68,35; 96,6;

,19; 108,7; 150,1; Dan 7,9-14; 8,9-14; 9,24). I took these passages from Souza’s dissertation.

Warren Baker and Eugene E. Carpenter, The complete word study dictionary: Old Testament,

(CWSD) Word Study Series (2003), s. v. “יתִנ ְב ַתּ“.

James Swanson, Dictionary of biblical languages with semantic domains: Hebrew (Old

Testament) (1997), s. v. “ה ָנ ָבּ“. See also James Strong, Strong’s exhaustive concordance of the

.“ּבָ נָ ה” .v .s ,Bible

.“ּתַ בְ נִית” .v .s ,CWSD ,Baker 19

Strong, Exhaustive concordance, s. v. “ה ָונּמ ְתּ“.

Strong, Exhaustive concordances, s. v. “ותּמ ְדּ“

For a thorough study of the word tabnit see Richard M. Davidson, “Typology in the Book

of Hebrews”, in Issues in the Book of Hebrews, ed. by Frank B. Holbrook, vol. 4, DARCOM

(Silver Spring: MD: Biblical Research Institute, 1989), 156–69; Several scholars supported

this view, such as B. Childs, The Book of Exodus (London, UK: SMC, 1974), 535;

C. Rylaarsdam, “Exodus”, The interpreter’s Bible (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1952),

; R. L Honeycott Jr., “Exodus”, in Broadman Bible Commentary, ed. by Clifton J. Allen

(Nashville, TN: Broadman, 1969), 416. Walther Eichrodt et al., The Old Testament Library,

vol. 1 (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1961), 423. All these supporters believed

in the heavenly realities of the sanctuary.

See Niel Erik Andreason, “The heavenly sanctuary in the Old Testament”, in The sanctuary and

the atonement: Biblical, historical, and theological studies, ed. by Arnold V. Wallenkampf and

W. Richard Lesher (Washington DC: Review and Herald, 1981), 69. Scholars who support

this view are Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch, The Pentateuch, vol. 2 (London, UK: T

& T Clark, 1864), 165; and W Harrelson, “The significance of cosmology in the ancient Near

East”, in Translating and understanding of The Old Testament, ed. by H. T Frank and W. L Reed

(Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1970), 249.

Y. Aharoni, “The Israelites sanctuary at Arad”, in New direction in biblical archaeology, ed. by

David Noel Freedman and J. C. Greenfield (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971), 25-39.

Harrelson, “Significance of cosmology,” 249.

“Temple…heaven” [Psalm 11,4], Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown,

A commentary, critical and explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments (Oak Harbor, WA:

Logos Research Systems, 1997)

Charles A Briggs and Emilie Grace Briggs, A critical and exegetical commentary on the Book of

Psalms, vol. 2, The International Critical Commentary (Fifth Avenue, NY: C. Scribner’s Sons,

, 90.

See Leonardo G. Nunes, “Function and nature of the heavenly sanctuary/temple and its

earthly counterparts in the New Testament Gospels, Acts, and the Epistles: A motif study of

major passages” (dissertation, Michigan, Andrews University, 2020). For example, John 14,2;

Acts 7,55-56; Ephe 4,8; Heb 1,3; 8,1-2; 10,12; 11,10.16; 12,2; 12,22; 13,10; 13,14; I took these

passages from Nunes’ dissertation.

Nunes, “Function and nature of the heavenly sanctuary/temple”, 39.

William G. Johnsson, In absolute confidence: The Book of Hebrew speaks to our day (Nashville,

TN: Southern Publishing, 1979), 91

Nunes, “Function and nature of the heavenly sanctuary/temple”, 292. Nunes provides texts

such as Heb 4,14; 6,19.20; 8,1-2; 9,11-12; 23-24; 10,19). Nunes pointed out scholars such as

Steve Motyers, Aelred Cody, MacRae, David Mottiff, Felix Cortez, Kiwoong Son, and Richard

Davidson who strongly supports the presence of the heavenly sanctuary, see Nunes, “Function

and nature of the heavenly sanctuary/temple”, 292, 294.

A. P Salom, “Sanctuary theology”, in Issues in the Book of Hebrews, vol. 4, Daniel and Revelation

Committee Series (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 1989), 206.

Strong, Exhaustive concordance, s. v. “ναός”.

Gerhard Kittel, G. W. Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, Theological dictionary of the New

Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964), 626

Jiri Moskala, “Toward a biblical theology of God’s judgment: A celebration of the cross in seven

phases of divine universal judgment (An overview of a theocentric-christocentric approach)”,

Journal of Adventist Theological Society 15, no. 1 (Spring 2004): 152–55.

Claus Westermann, Creation, trans. by John J. Scullion (London: SPCK, 1974), 96

Richard M. Davidson, The song of the sanctuary: Experiencing God’s presence in shadow and reality, 1st ed. (Nampa: ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2022), 411.

Phyllis Trible, God and the rhetoric of sexuality, overtures to biblical theology (Philadelphia, PA:

Fortress, 1978), 117; Rick R. Marrs, “In the beginning: Male and female (Gen 1–3)”, in Essays

on women in earliest Christianity, ed. by Carroll D. Osburn, vol. 2 ( Joplin, MO: College Press,

, 27–28.

Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1–17, New International Commentary on

the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990), 230–231; Kenneth A. Matthews,

Genesis 1–11:26, New American Commentary 1A (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman,

, 275.

Nahum M. Sarna, Genesis, The JPS Torah Commentary (Philadelphia, PA: JPS, 1989), 82.

T. F. Mafico, “The crucial question concerning the justice of God”, Journal of Theology for

Southern Africa 42 (1983): 13.

According to Davidson, there are twenty five psalms where the lawsuit divine investigative

judgment is prominent: Psalms 3; 4; 5; 7; 11; 17; 26; 27; 31; 35; 42; 43; 54; 55; 56; 57; 59;

; 64; 69; 70; 86; 109; 140; 142; 143. And there are sixty passages that are related to “divine

legal proceedings”: Psalms 9,; 10,18; 14,2; 33,13-15; 37,33; 51,6 (ET 4); 53,2-3;

,1; 56,8-9; 58,11; 62,12; 66,10; 67,4; 73,17-20; 75,2.7-8; 76,8-10; 80,14; 81,1-2; 82,1-4.8;

,6; 94,1-3; 96,10-13; 97,8; 98,9; 102,19-22; 110,5-6; 135,14; 137,7-9; 139,1-6.23-24; 146,7;

,7-9. See Davidson, The song of the sanctuary, 433–34.

William Shea, “The investigative judgment of Judah, Ezekiel 1-10”, in The Sanctuary and

Atonement: Biblical, historical and theological studies, ed. by Arnold V. Wallenkampf and W.

Richard Lesher (Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1981), 283. Shea, Selected studies on

prophetic interpretation, 1:16

Shea, “Judgment of Judah”, in The sanctuary, 285.


Ibid., 286.

Ibid., 287

Ibid., 289.

Angel Manuel Rodriquez, “Response to: “The investigative judgment: A Bible based doctrine?”,

The watchtower, July 1997, 6.

The three and half times refers to 1260 years. This is to be calculated with a year-day principle,

which is seems to be reliable and a correct way of interpreting apocalyptic literature like Daniel

because they are symbolic. The biblical reference for this method of interpretation is found

in Numbers 14,34 and Ezekiel 4,6, where God literally used a day for a year. For instance,

Numbers 14,36 stated: “According to the number of days in which you spied out for a land, forty

days, for each day you shall bear your guilt for one year, namely forty years, and you shall know

my rejection”. Accordingly, three and half times or three and half years (360 x 3 + 180 = 1260)

is 1260 days. Thus, applying day as a year, the little horn rule for 1260 years. For more

understanding of the historicist method of year-day principle, see Thomas R. Birks, First elements

of sacred prophecy (London, UK: William E. Painter, 1843); H. G. Guinness, The approaching

end of the age, viewed in the light of history, prophecy, and science, 8th ed. (London, UK: Hodder

& Stoughton, 1882); Desmond Ford, Daniel (Nashville, TN: Southern Publishing, 1978),

–305; Shea, Selected studies on prophetic interpretation, 1:64–104. For understanding from

the Jewish Literature, see O. S. Wintermute, “Jubilees: A new translation and introduction”,

in The Old Testament pseudepigrapha, ed. by James H. Charlesworth, vol. 2 (Garden City, NY:

Doubleday, 1985), 39.

Ibid. The little horn opposed the saints and the Most High. Pfandl, “The pre-advent judgment”, 2.

Pfandl, “The pre-advent judgment”, 2.

Ibid. The fact of Daniel 7 judgment being a preliminary judgment had been noticed by

several non-Seventh-day Adventists commentators. For instance, the Roman Catholic author,

F. Dusterwald stated:

Without question, the prophet Daniel here describes God’s judgment concerning the hostile

powers. The judgment ends with the total condemnation of the world empires and the triumph of

the cause of God. However, what is described here is not as many old interpreters (Theodoret and

others) have assumed the general judgment of the world, it is not God judgment here on earth;

rather the place of judgment is in heaven. The context indicates that it is preliminary judgment

which is later confirmed in the general judgment of the world.

See F. Dusterwald, Die Weltreiche Und Das Gottesreich (Freiburg: Herder’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1890), 177. T. Robinson wrote in his commentary that the judgment is sat in

the 19th century. Concerning this, he stated:

As already observed, this is not the general judgment at the termination of Christ’s reign on earth,

or, as the phrase is commonly understood, the end of the world. It appears rather to be an invisible

judgment carried on within the veil and revealed by its effects and the execution of its sentence.

As occasioned by the ‘great words’ of a Little horn and followed by taking away of his dominion, it

might seem to have already sat. As, However, the sentence is not yet by any means fully executed,

it may be sitting now.

See Thomas Robinson, The preacher’s homiletical commentary, vol. 19 (New York: Funk &

Wagnalls, 1892), 139. See also, S. P Tregelles, Remarks on the prophetic visions in the Book of

Daniel, 8th ed. (Chelmsford, UK: The Sovereigns Advent Testimony, n.d), 35-38

Several references are present in the Old Testament that is in association with God’s people.

For instance, there is a “book of a living” mainly dealt with the righteous (Ps 69,28), the lives

of humanity is written in God’s book, the days and length of lives are recorded (Ps 139,16),

the struggles and pain are recorded (Ps 56,8), their thoughts (Mal 3,16), their good deeds

(Neh 13,14), their sins are recorded (Ps 109,14; Isa 65,6). Even in the New Testament the

heavenly book is mentioned several times (Phil 4,3; Rev 3,5; 13,8; 17,8; 20,12.15) and

this book is known as the book of life (Rev 21,27). The Jewish literature also contains

the heavenly book (1 Enoch 47,3).

Shea beautifully explained the vindication of the saints this way: “From time to time some of

these saints have been adjudged guilty of various crimes by the earthly tribunals when actually

they were serving God and man faithfully. In the pre-advent judgment, these unjust sentences

by the earthly court will be reversed by the courts of heaven. In this way, God will vindicate his

saints”. See William Shea, “A theological importance of the pre-advent judgment”, in The seventy

weeks, Leviticus, and the nature of prophecy, vol. 3, Daniel and Revelation Committee Series

(Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 1986), 328.

Norman R. Gulley, Christ is coming! A Christ-centered approach to last-day events (Hagerstown,

MD: Review and Herald, 1998), 413. See also Arthur J. Ferch, “The pre-advent judgment: Is it

scriptural?”, Australasian Record, August 28, 1982, 5-7.

Rodríguez, “Investigative Judgment”, 8.

The word “the daily” is taken from the Hebrew word יד ִמ ָתּ ַה, in which, the Hebrew word is

composed by the article ַה and the root word יד ִמ ָתּ . The word ַה simply means “the”, and יד ִמ ָתּ

signifies something which is done in a regular basis without any interruption, the usage in the

Old Testament is 104 times, in which, most of them are used in an adjectival genitive form

for mentioning the continual burnt offering made to God in the sanctuary every morning and

evening (Exod 29,42; Num 28,; Ezra 3,5; Neh 10,6; Ezek 46,15). See R. Laird Harris,

Gleason Leonard Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke, eds., Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament

(Chicago, IL: Moody, 1980), 493; James Strong, Strong’s exhaustive concordance of the Bible

(Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006), s. v “יד ִמ ָתּ“. See also, W. E. Vine, Merrill F.

Unger, and William White, Vine’s complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament

words: With topical index (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996), 1:47.

Revised Standard Version is used.

Rodríguez, “Investigative Judgment”, 2.

All the usages of hatamid are relating with the sanctuary and are translated as a “continual

or regular burn offering” several times (Num 29,; Neh 10,34;

Dan 11,31; 12,11), a continual bread offering (Num 4,7), and a daily grain offering (Num 4,16).

Rodríguez, “Investigative Judgment”, 3.

Daniel 8,1 started with the political kingdom of rams representing Medo-Persia and he-goat

representing Greece, one can compare this with Daniel 7, where the sequences of the kingdom

are clearly seen, and the sequences are repeated three times. Accordingly, the four beasts in

Daniel 7,3 are the kingdom the earth (v. 13), the little horn power reigned just before the

dominion is given to the saints and the Son of Man (Dan 7,26.27).

See Shea, “Supplementary evidence” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 12, no 1,

(Spring, 2001): 89-96.

The term ה ֶא ְר ַמ is a vision that specifically deals with the representation of truth as enacted by

God to His prophets which is can be used interrelatedly to the other term of vision וןֹז ָח, which

indicate a general divine communication of God. Siegfried H. Horn, Seventh-day Adventist Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (1979), s. v. “vision”.

The longest prophecy of the Bible is noted to be ended after 2300 days in Daniel 8,14. Thus, it

signifies only the time for its fulfillment of the prophecy but do not notify the commencement

of the prophecy

William Shea, “The relationship between the prophecies of Daniel 8 and Daniel 9”, in The

sanctuary and the atonement: Biblical, historical and theological studies, ed. by Arnold V.

Wallenkampf and W. Richard Lesher (Washington, D. C: Review and Herald, 1981), 241-246.

The Messiah will die towards the end of 70 weeks, and His death would end up the transgression

by bringing an everlasting righteousness; He will put an end to sin through forgiveness, seal

up the vision by fulfilling the prophecy; make an atonement for sin through His sacrifice;

anoint the heavenly sanctuary; make an everlasting covenant with many people and the

making an end to the earthly sanctuary service (Dan 9,24-27). In addition, the destruction of

the temple and the holy city must be decreed during the 70 weeks (vv. 26, 27), this was fulfilled

when Jesus announced the destruction fo the city of Jerusalem (Matt 24,1.2).

Gerhard F. Hasel, “The Hebrew masculine plural for ‘weeks’ in the expression

‘seventy weeks’ in Daniel 9:24”, Andrews University Seminary Studies 31 (1993): 105-118.

The word “weeks” employed in Daniel 9 is ים ִע ְב ִשׁ, which is taken from the root word ַועּב ָשׁ, meaning sevenfold, a period of seven, a week, a time period of seven days (Gen 29,27.28; Lev 12,5;

Deut 16,9; Dan 10,2.3). According to Strong’s Lexicon, the word “weeks” occurs for 20 times.

Most of the usage designates the seven unit of days (Exod 34,22; Num 26,28; Deut 16,10.16;

Chro 8,13; Jer 5,24; Dan 10,2.3). See Robert L Thomas and W. Don Wilkins, New American

standard exhaustive concordance of the Bible: Hebrew-aramaic and Greek dictionaries (Anaheim,

CA.: Foundation Publications, 1998), s. v. “weeks”. See also, Strong, Strong’s concordance, s. v

“ ַועּב ָשׁ ;“Harris, Archer, and Waltke, Theological wordbook of the Old Testament, 898; Swanson,

Dictionary of biblical languages with semantic domains: Hebrew (Old Testament), s. v “ ַועּב ָשׁ“.

William Shea, “The prophecy of Daniel 9:24-27”, in The seventy weeks, Leviticus, and the nature

of prophecy, vol. 3, Daniel and Revelation Committee Series (Hagerstown, MD: Review and

Herald, 1986), 75–118.

There are several decrees given by certain rulers such as a decree from Cyrus in 537 B.C.

(Ezra 1,1-4), decree by Darius in 520 B.C. (Ezra 6,1-12), Artexerxes in 457 B.C. (Ezra 7,12-26),

and the renewal of the decree in 444 B.C. during the time of Nehemiah (Neh 1). Among these,

B.C. is the most suitable date for the decree of rebuilding the wall in Jerusalem. See Shea,

“Supplementary evidence”, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 12, no 1, (Spring, 2001):

-96; Brempont Owusu-Antwi, “An investigation of the chronology of Daniel 9:24-27”

(dissertation, Michigan, Andrews University, 1993), 324–27. See also William Shea, “When

did the seventy weeks of Daniel 9:24 begin”, Journal of Adventist Theological Society 2, no. 1

(1991): 115-138.

Shea explained that the early Millerites came up to the conclusion of October 22, 1844

according to Karaite Calendar which is the most reliable calendar in their times. However, Shea

suggested the modern calculation system because every resource is available now. Accordingly,

he used the Babylonian calendar which was used in the time of Daniel which can concluded

that the ending period of 2300 days prophecy is in October 22, 1844. For detail calculation of

calendar, see Shea, Selected studies on prophetic interpretation, 1:169–71. This calculation made

by Shea was later improved by Richard M. Davidson, who also noted that the Karaite calendar,

which is based on the ripening of barley, is a biblical reckoning and that the 2300-day prophecy began exactly on the Day of Atonement in 457 B.C. (likely in the month of October) and

ended on the Day of Atonement in 1844 as well, which is October 22. For a detailed narrative

of the calculation, see Richard M. Davidson, “When did the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14 begin

and end? Fresh evidence from Scripture, chronology, and Karaite History”, in Eschatology from

an Adventist perspective, ed. by Elias Brasil de Souza, A. Rahel Wells, Laszlo Gallusz, and Denis

Kaiser (Silver Spring, MD: Biblical Research Institute, 2021), 105-108, 116-119.

The notion of reward is found in many places of the Gospel, for instance, “Beware of practicing

your piety before men in order to be seen by them; for then you will have no reward from your

Father who is in heaven,” (Matt 6,1; cf. 6,; 10,41.42; Mark 9,41; Luke 6,23.35).

Similarly, the separation of sheep and goat at the time of advent presupposes that it is only the

time of executing the judgment of which had been decided earlier (Matt 25,32-33)

See , Gerhard F. Hasel, “Divine judgment”, in Handbook of Seventh-Day Adventist Theology, ed.

by Raoul Dederen (Hagerstown: MD: Review and Herald, 2000), 833-864; Moskala, “Toward

a biblical theology of God’s judgment”, 152-155. Rev 19,7, 17 regard the coming of Christ as

the “marriage of the lamb”. Ellen White, commenting on Matthew 22, stated:

In the parable of Matthew 22, the same figure of the marriage is introduced, the investigative

judgment is clearly represented as taking place before marriage. Previous to the wedding the kings

comes in to see the guests, to see if all are attired with the wedding garment, the spotless robe of

character washed and made white in the blood of the lamb… the work of examination of character,

of determining who are prepared for the kingdom of God, is that of the investigative judgment, the

closing work in the Sanctuary above.

See White, The great controversy, 428.

Concerning the sequence of events in 1 Timothy 4,1-2, Barclay notes the order in three

parts: (1) Judgment (2) Appearance (3) Kingdom. He mentioned that the events follow the

logical progression which leads to the consummated history of salvation. Thus, the judgment

is followed by the appearance of Christ. See William Barclay, The Letters to Timothy, Titus,

and Philemon, 3rd ed. fully rev. and updated, The New Daily Study Bible (Louisville, KY:

Westminster John Knox Press, 2003), 232–34. The King James Version reads: “I charge thee

therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at

his appearing and his kingdom”, which is rejected by many modern translation today because

it does not accurately render the Greek conjunction “kai….kai” which would imply “and by

His appearing and his Kingdom” (RSV). The New International Version also render the Greek

text appropriately: “In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living

and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom I give you this charge”. Dibelius and

Conzelman also notice that the charge of Paul is to be considered as a formulaic, this principle

is seen in 1 Timothy 5,21. Thus, the pattern of charge in 1 Timothy 4 and 5 is similar which is

sequentially stated by Paul. Accordingly, the judgment, the appearing, and the kingdom seem to

be in sequence. See Martin Dibelius and Hans Conzelmann, The pastoral epistles: A commentary

on the pastoral epistles (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1972), 120.

Paul provides several passages concerning the manner of Christ coming (1 Thess 1,7-10;

Thess 4,13-18; 1 Cor 15,51-58).

J. A. Seiss, a Lutheran minister, comment on the passage of Paul on the manner of Christ

coming, he came to the same conclusion:

The truth is, that the resurrection, and the changes which pass “in the twinkling of an eye” upon

the living, are themselves the fruits and embodiments of antecedent judgment. They are the

consequences of adjudications then already made. Strictly speaking, men are neither raised nor

translated, in order to come to judgment. Resurrections and translations are products of judgment

previously passed, upon the dead as dead, and upon the quick as quick.

See Joseph August Seiss, The Apocalypse: Lectures on the Book of Revelation (New York, NY:

Cosimo Classics, 2007), 18

John A. Bollier, commenting on the passage, said that the pre-advent judgment in the Book

of Revelation “is educative in purpose rather than vindictive and retributive. They are meant

to bring both the church and the world to repentance”. See John A. Bollier, “Judgment in the

Apocalypse”, Interpretation ( January 1953): 18. According to Bollier, the hour of judgment

in Revelation 14 comes between the series of judgment. The seven seals and trumpets (6-13)

followed by the judgment in Revelation 14 and succeeded by the seven last plagues, the judgment

of Babylon, the beast, the false prophets and the wicked (Rev 15-20). Thus, the investigative

judgment is before the second coming. See ibid., 22.

Martha Himmelfarb, Ascent to heaven in Jewish and Christian apocalypses (New York, NY:

Oxford University Press, 1993).

Lois E. Malcolm, “He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of God the Father

almighty”, in Exploring and proclaiming the Apostles’ creed, ed. by Roger Van Harn (Grand

Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004), 161-172

Matthew 22,44; 26,64; Mark 12,36; 14,62; Luke 20,42-43; 22,69; Acts 2,33-34; 5,31; 7,55-56;

Romans 8,34; Ephesians 1,20; Colossians 3,1; Hebrews 1,3.13; 8.1; 10,12; 12,2; 1 Peter 3,22

Holbrook explained the meaning of sitting at the right hand of God this way: “To sit at God’s

right hand” is a figurative phrase indicating the Savior’s new, exalted dignity, full authority and

majesty, His rank and preeminence over the created universe. Christ Himself speaks of the

glorified redeemed in a similar manner when He promises: ‘They will sit with me on my throne,

as I myself conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne’ (Rev 3:21). Obviously,

the phrasing speaks of their dignity as ‘fellow heirs with Christ’ (Rom 8:17) and not of a sitting

on a single, literal throne which would be impossible for the millions of redeemed persons”.

See Frank B Holbrook, “Christ’s inauguration as King Priest,” Journal of the Adventist Theological

Society 5, no. 2 (1994): 139

Mark 16,19; Luke 24,50-51; Acts 1,9-11; Rom 5,10-21; Rom 8,34; 1 John 2,1; Heb 4,15-16; 8,1-2.

There is a difference between standing and sitting regarding the act of Jesus near the throne in

heaven, According to Moskala, standing refers to the intercessory ministry and sitting refers to

the victory, honor, kingship of Jesus ( Matt 26,64; Mark 16,19; Rom 8,34; Ephe 1,20; Col 3,1;

Heb 12,2; cf. Ps 110,1). Moskala further explained that standing could also be defined as the

action of judging. See Jiří Moskala, “The meaning of the intercessory ministry of Jesus Christ

on our behalf in the heavenly sanctuary”, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 28, no. 1

(2017): 7

Emil Brunner, The mediator: A study of the central doctrine of the Christian faith, trans. by

Olive Wyon (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster John Knox Press, 1947); Edward Heppenstall, Our

high Priest: Jesus Christ in the heavenly sanctuary (Washington DC: Review and Herald, 1972);

G. C. Berkouwer, The work of Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1965); Louis Berkhof,

Systematic theology, new ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996); Wayne A. Grudem, Systematic theology: An introduction to biblical doctrine (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994);

Millard J. Erickson, Christian theology, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2013).

Moskala pointed out of what intercessory ministry of Christ does not mean: 1) Christ does not

need to beg the heavenly Father to led him forgive the sinners, 2) God is not angry and Christ

is not attempting to appease God who is angry, 3) Intercessor does not mean Christ will change

the attitude of the Father towards humanity, 4) Jesus does not try to reconcile God to humanity,

but reconcile humanity to God. See Moskala, “Intercessory ministry”, 8.

Torrance support this by saying: “Thus as both to incarnate revelation of God and the embodied

knowledge of God, Jesus constitutes in himself the Way, the Truth and the Life through whom

alone the access to God the Father is freely open for all people of humanity. That is to say, as the

incarnate Word and Truth of God Jesus Christ in His own personal Being are identical with the

Revelation which he mediates”. See Thomas F. Torrance, The mediation of Christ, rev. ed. (Grand

Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1983), 19

Richard M Davidson, “Proverbs 8 and the place of Christ in the Trinity,” Journal of the Adventist

Theological Society 17, no. 1 (2006): 33-54